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Projects by Process & Materials Engineering

Are you looking for projects that the Section of Process & Materials Engineering is currently working on? On this page you can find all projects by the Section of Process & Materials Engineering - Department of Biological & Chemical Engineering, Aarhus University.

Below you can find a list of all current and previous projects of research, their status, mission, and funding:

Intelligent Advanced Materials


Duration: 2021-07-01 to 2028-06-30

Granted by: Novo Nordisk Foundation

Villum Investigator - Enabling Technologies for a Sustainable

Future name: Ionic Liquids as Transformative Tools in Nanomaterials Synthesis

Duration:  2022-01-01 to 2027-12-31

Granted by: Villum Fonden

Pushing the Green Transition: Research grade spectrofluorometer for enabling the next generation of energy efficient, environmentally benign lighting

Duration:  2022-01-01 to 2023-12-31

Granted by: Carlsberg Fonden

Enabling energy-efficient refrigeration through new magnetocaloric materials

Duration:  2022-02-01 to 2026-01-31

Granted by: DFF

Electrochemical Energy Conversion and Batteries

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  1. H2-Anode

    Anders Bentien

    The objective of this project is to improve the efficiency of alkaline electrolysis.

    Project budget: 1.1 million EUR

    Funding Source
    Eurostars III - Call 3


  2. Low-cost H2 production by high-performing alkaline water electrolysis

    Anders Bentien

    Hydrogen is envisioned to become a key enabler and energy carrier in the future 100% renewable energy system with predicted applications within transportation, grid stability, industry, re-electrification, etc. The current Low-Cost Hydrogen project (LC-H2) has a game changing, break-through potential in the field of green hydrogen accelerating the entire PtX market. The project aims to validate/demonstrate electrolyser current density of 400 mA/cm2@1.6V and improve the efficiency of Alkaline Water Electrolyser (AWE) cell from today state-of-the-art of 63% energy conversion efficiency to 77%. The new inventions will make it possible to double the current density from 200mA/cm2 to 400mA/cm2 for the stack and thereby reduce the electrolyser stack CAPEX by a factor of two. Modelling technique and neutron imaging will be used for eliminating inflow/outflow bottlenecks in the cell supporting further optimization of the cell efficiency – especially at high current densities.
    In short, the LC-H2 project will make improvements to the key components of the alkaline electrolyzer stack for green hydrogen to be able to compete with hydrogen from fossil sources and thereby pave the way for a society based on 100% renewable energy.

    Project budget: 1.9 million EUR

    Funding Source
    Innovation Foundation Denmark – Grand Solutions



  3. Performance Boosting of operating alkaline electrolysers by novel in situ electrode activation method

    Anders Bentien

    The overall objective of the US/DK network on technologies for the green transition (UD-Tech) is to fast-track the green transition by enabling some of the world’s leading research institutions in Denmark and US on fuel cells, batteries and electrolysis/Power-to-X (PtX) to further the access to the latest knowledge, highly specialized competencies and talent by facilitating a network on energy research.

    Project budget: 2.0 million EUR

    Funding Source
    Energy Development & Demonstration Projects (EUDP)



  4. US/DK network on technologies for the green transition (UD-Tech)

    Anders Bentien

    The overall objective of the US/DK network on technologies for the green transition (UD-Tech) is to fast-track the green transition by enabling some of the world’s leading research institutions in Denmark and US on fuel cells, batteries and electrolysis/Power-to-X (PtX) to further the access to the latest knowledge, highly specialized competencies and talent by facilitating a network on energy research.

    Project budget: 0.13 million EUR

    Funding Source
    Eurostars III - Call 3



  5. Development of novel test methods for improving the fundamental understanding of hydrogen and oxygen formation in alkaline electrolysis

    Anders Bentien

    The Ph.D project “Development of Novel Test Methods for Improved Fundamental
    Understanding of Hydrogen and Oxygen Formation in Alkaline Electrolysis” focuses
    on research, technology development and innovation regarding the test of
    electrodes used for production of “green” hydrogen. The project is carried out at
    Advanced Surface Plating, which is a company focusing on development and large-
    scale production of high-efficient electrodes for alkaline electrolysis. Production of
    cost competitive and more energy efficient electrodes is a necessity for advancing
    the field of renewable energy such as PtX solutions.
    During the project, the Ph.D candidate will improve the fundamental understanding
    of both the hydrogen (HER) and oxygen evolution reactions (OER) via development
    of test cells operated at industrial relevant conditions. Furthermore, the HER and
    OER are studied by neutron and x-ray imaging techniques, providing a 3D mapping
    of the HER and OER within the porous nickel electrodes.

    Project budget: 0.15 mio EUR

    Funding Source
    Industrial PhD – Innovation Foundation Denmark



  6. High-performance electrodes for alkaline electrolysis

    Anders Bentien

    The PhD project “High-performance electrodes for alkaline electrolysis” is focused
    on fundamental research, technology development and innovation in the green
    segment. The PhD project will be made at Advanced Surface Plating (ASP), which is
    building up R&D facilities, necessary infrastructure, and large-scale electrode
    production (>16,000 m2/year). Cost-competitive production of green hydrogen,
    from renewable resources, is mandatory to facilitate exploration of different PtX
    solutions. The PhD candidate will develop high-performing electrodes enabling
    hydrogen and oxygen formation at a lower overpotentials

    Project budget: 0.15 mio EUR

    Funding Source
    Industrial PhD – Innovation Foundation Denmark



  7. Agile R&D processes and Lean Electrode Production for alkaline electrolysis

    Anders Bentien

    The vision of the "H2-LEAN" project is to support efficient scalable electrode production for alkaline electrolysis and build an agile R&D centre for electrode development, thus contributing to future hydrogen production becoming more efficient and cheaper and ensuring that new technology comes to market faster. This project helps to reduce the LCOH (Levelised Cost Of Hydrogen) and will contribute significantly to the green transition in the market from 2024/2025.
    The entire green hydrogen industry is still emerging and many technological and process innovations are needed to make the industry competitive. This applies to hydrogen buyers, hydrogen producers and OEM suppliers. Processes, management concepts and IT systems must be built to make production and development work efficient and scalable. In popular parlance, the hydrogen industry is where the wind turbine industry was some 20 years ago.
    This project focuses on introducing new production processes, data collection and installation of a new test/performance test platform to build a Lean-based and scalable electrode production unit and R&D centre with an agile product development concept with short development cycles.

    Project budget: 0.99 million EUR

    Funding Source



  8. Nettilsluttede Hybridbatterier

    Anders Bentien

    At udføre forstudie af et nettilsluttet Li-ion/Flow hybridbatteri.

    Målet med projektet er at foretage indledende
    •undersøgelse af forretningsmodeller for nettilsluttede hybridbatterier
    •optimering af dimensionering af hybridbatteri (kapacitet/effekt)
    •beskrivelse af arkitektur (power-elektronik, el-diagrammer for hybridisering, evt. fysisk opbygning af containere)
    •beskrivelse af styring/kontrol af hybridbatteriet
    Det overordnede formål er skabe grundlag for en Go/NoGo beslutning omkring opbygning/demonstration af et hybridt batteri på stor skala.

    Project budget: 53 kEUR

    Funding Source
    Energy Cluster Denmark



  9. Dual circuit flow battery for hydrogen and value added chemical production

    Anders Bentien

    DualFlow develops a radically new energy conversion and storage concept that combines water electrolysis, battery storage and co-production of decarbonized chemicals into one single hybrid technology using water soluble redox mediators as energy transfer vectors.

    The system can be operated for electricity storage or for energy conversion to hydrogen and value added chemicals. During energy storage operation, the system works as a conventional stationary flow battery. The energy conversion starts when the battery is full but there is abundant inexpensive green electricity available. Now the battery is chemically discharged in a mediated electrolysis to produce hydrogen and value added chemicals. The energy conversion is realized by pumping charged battery electrolytes through reactors. For hydrogen production, reactor is filled with catalytic particles to catalyze electron transfer and hydrogen evolution. For value added chemical production the reactor consists of biphasic system where charged electrolyte oxidizes chemicals in an organic phase. The reaction products are then extracted into the organic phase. The energy conversion operation requires only reactors and catalyst for hydrogen evolution, indicating that the additive costs of the dual circuit is minimal. The concept results in flexible system capable of both energy storage and energy conversion to hydrogen. We strongly believe that this concept offers possibilities to produce inexpensive hydrogen, in a flexible manner without utilizing any critical raw materials.

    Project budget: 3.00 mio EUR

    Funding Source
    European Innovation Council – Pathfinder Challenges



  10. Hybrid Electrochemical System for Electricity & Hydrogen Storage

    Anders Bentien

    Project is related to research in a radically new energy conversion and storage concept that combines water electrolysis and battery storage into one single hybrid technology using soluble redox mediators as storage vectors.
    The ultimate goal of the project is to solve some of the fundamental challenges of the technology, make lab-scale proof-of-concept demonstration and pave the way for future upscaling/realisation of the technology. If successful the project is a potential game-changer within cost-efficient electricity storage and hydrogen production.

    Project budget: 0.82 mio EUR

    Funding Source
    Independent Research Fund Denmark



  11. Danish - Korean cooperation on redox flow battery development for energy storage

    Anders Bentien

    DanKoBat aims at providing a commercial breakthrough for vanadium flow redox batteries (VFRB) by developing a novel and more cost effective membrane compared to the available commercial products. VRFB are foreseen to be a dominant solution to electrical energy storage (EES) challenges worldwide.
    Project budget: 1.5 mio EUR
    Funding Source
    EUREKA - Innovation Foundation Denmark.


  12. UNIBAT : Universal Organic Redox Active Materials for Stationary Batteries

    Anders Bentien

    To complete the green transition significant expansion of energy storage facilities are needed and includes batteries for stationary electricity storage. Due to relatively high cost and environmental issues of state-of-the-art Li ion batteries there is a clear incentive to develop new environmental benign, low cost and long life time batteries.
    The project will investigate organic redox active materials as anodes in combination with transition metal proton intercalation materials as cathodes. A novel high risk-high gain aspect of the project is development of two-phase batteries. Here the liquid and water immiscible properties of some of the organic redox active molecules is combined with a transition metal based cathode in aqueous phase to form a high energy density and separator free battery. Additionally, an approach with less risk will also be followed. Here redox active polymers as an alternative to the liquid redox organics will be used in all-aqueous proton batteries.

    Project budget: 0.83 mio EUR

    Funding Source
    Independent Research Fund Denmark



  13. Long term chemical stability of vanadium flow batteries

    Anders Bentien

    The project is focused on increasing the fundamental understanding of long term (> years) chemical stability of liquid vanadium solutions in flow batteries. Because of the usage of the same solution in both half cells, vanadium cross-over in the stack has no damaging effect and Vanadium Flow Batteries (VFBs) are considered to have infinite lifetime. However, in practice there are three reversible mechanisms that can degrade the chemical integrity of VFBs and lead to capacity loss over time: (1) external oxidation, (2) vanadium/volumetric crossover and (3) temperature stability.

    Through lab-scale proof-of concept, the goal is to quantify these mechanisms and develop new methods that would reverse the degradation. Additionally, in co-operation with VisBlue, the aim is to implement these methods in real battery systems.

    Project budget: 0.15 mio EUR

    Funding Source

    PhD – Innovation Foundation Denmark



  14. Scaleup of redox flow batteries

    Anders Bentien

    The project is on rechargeable batteries for large scale energy storage, where a solution of vanadium is used to hold the energy. A danish produced stack (battery assembly) will be developed, and a system will be demonstrated where 100 kWh of power can be stored. The idea is to ude the system for storage of renewable energy from wind turbines etc.

    Vanadium redox flow batteries (VRFB) is a promising technology for renewable energy storage and load balancing. Applications include domestic and local load balancing of photovaltaics. By scale-up of the modular technology, VRFB systems will be very suitable for energy storage on the level of wind turbines and for grid balancing (MW/MWh scale).

    The project RED-BATS will scale-up VRFB stacks from 5 to 25 kW to establish compatibility with large system (MW) and increase efficiency and reduce cost of ownership of systems.

    At 25 kW/100 kWh range system will be demonstrated. It is the ambition to establish a Danish production of RFB stacks and systems at VisBlue in Aarhus, as well as to expand a competitive Danish supply-chain for VFB key components.

    Project budget: 2.4 mio EUR
    Funding Source
    Energy Development & Demonstration Projects (EUDP)

    The project RED-BATS will scale-up VRFB stacks from 5 to 25 kW to establish compatibility with large system (MW) and increase efficiency and reduce cost of ownership of systems.

    At 25 kW/100 kWh range system will be demonstrated. It is the ambition to establish a Danish production of RFB stacks and systems at VisBlue in Aarhus, as well as to expand a competitive Danish supply-chain for VFB key components.


  15. Redox Mediated Microbial CO2 Reduction

    Anders Bentien

    The ReMeSh project is related to investigation of a new concept that we term Redox Mediated Microbial CO2 Reduction. It will combine electrochemical flow cells known from water electrolyser/flow batteries, to efficiently reduce a water soluble organic redox mediator. The mediator is subsequently pumped into a microbial reactor where protons/electrons are transferred to the microbes that reduces CO2 to form methane. Compared to the state-of-the-art, the concept has the potential to surpass the conversion turnover several orders of magnitude and if the ReMeSh project is successful could constitute a milestone in microbial CO2 reduction/Power-to-X.

    Project budget: 0.66 mio EUR

    Funding Source
    Exploratory Interdisciplinary Synergy Programme – Novo Nordic Foundation



  16. High efficiency membranes and stacks for flow batteries

    Anders Bentien

    Funding Source: Innovation Foundation Denmark.

    • Department of Biological & Chemical Engineering, Aarhus University (PI)
    • Blue World Technologies
    • Visblue
    • DTU Energy
    • The Korean Institute of Science and Technology

    The main objective is to pave the way for a future generation of low-cost stationary redox flow batteries for storage of renewable electricity that will enable the levelised-cost-of-electricity-storage below the €0.05/kWh/cycle. This is considered to be a threshold for disruptive breakthrough of stationary batteries which will be a key component for the transition to a fully renewable based energy system. This highly collaborative project leverages the know-how of two Danish SMEs (DPS and VisBlue) combined with that of leading academic groups in Denmark (AU and DTU) and Korea (KIST) to make PBI based membranes a key material to create a low-cost high-performance stack for VisBlue’s systems.

    Project budget: 2 mio EUR


  17. Grid Connected Flow Batteries

    Anders Bentien

    The energy network of the future will be much more decentralised than at present, where large heat and power plants provide the coverage. This can potentially overload local grids that are not designed for the modern form of energy production. Flow batteries can be the solution.Beskrivelse


  18. Electrogas

    Lars Ditlev Mørck Ottosen , Anders Bentien & Henrik Bjarne Møller

    Partners: AU, University of Southern Denmark, Standford University, University of Southern California, University of QueenslandBeskrivelse


Hydrothermal Processing

REBOOT - Resource efficient bio-chemical production and waste treatment

The REBOOT project is a European Research Council funded project under the ERC- Starting Grant scheme for young researchers. The 1.5m € grant was awarded to group leader Patrick Biller and the project started in January 2020, scheduled to last 5 years. 

The Project was funded under Grant agreement number 849841 and the official CORDIS website in multiple languages can be found here at https://cordis.europa.eu/project/id/849841 


  There are several different ways to treat wastewater, detect and recycle valuable materials instead of disposing of them. However, existing technologies of wastewater treatment and management do not address significant environmental challenges such as nutrient circularity and climate change. The EU-funded REBOOT project proposes an advanced technology that recovers precious materials from wastewater, treats them and generates carbon-neutral combustibles. The hydrothermal liquefaction (HTL) technology employs high temperature and pressure to produce bio-crude that is a product with properties similar to those of petroleum. Bio-crude can be used in a variety of advanced applications such as bio-bitumen or renewable aviation fuel. The technology will be tested on pilot continuous reactors aiming to offer a new waste management concept.  


The specific objectives of the REBOOT project are to bring the HTL technology to the next stage. Despite the recent advances in HTL research and reactor development there are major outstanding scientific issues which scientists have not been able to solve. The largest hurdles, which we will apply our innovative concepts to are:

1. Recovering P from the HTL reactor inline.

2. Efficient catalytic upgrading of bio-crude to high quality fuels.

3. Valorizing carbon in the process water while recovering nutrients.

These challenges will be addressed by investigating basic scientific questions which can then be applied in continuous flow with the purpose of upscaling and eventually commercialization. 

We will study the salt behavior in multiphase hydrothermal systems with the aim of full phosphorous recovery. The idea is that we can tailor the reaction conditions to achieve optimum precipitation of salts which can then be recovered using specifically designed high pressure separators. The recovered phosphorus will be applied as fertilizer, closing the nutrient circle from wet wastes.

In terms of bio-crude quality we will apply advances in-site catalysts in the HTL reactors. This can only be achieved if the inorganics are efficiently separated in the HTL reactor and stable catalyst supports are identified which can withstand the high pressure, high temperature aqueous environment. The aim is to produce a bio-crude which matches the specifications required for direct integration into existing oil refineries or which has improved properties for dedicated upgrading to jet fuel.

Finally, we will investigate the beneficial use of the HTL process water. This fraction makes up a large amount of the products from HTL due to the wet feedstocks used mainly containing water. The process water is highly contaminated with carbon and nutrients which poses a threat and opportunity. We will use a combination of chemical, electro-chemical and biologic processes to valorize this resource efficiently to utilize all product phases, recover carbon and nutrients and establish a fully circular wet waste treatment solution.   

This project has received funding from the European Research Council (ERC) under the European  Union’s Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme (grant agreement No 849841)

Catalytic depolymerization of synthetic polymer


CatPol is funded by the Independant Reseach Foundation Denmark. The project started in September 2021 and is scheduled to last for 3 years. 

Summary of the proejct

Plastic pollution of the worlds oceans and land is a tremendous problem. One of the
reasons for the release of plastics to the environment is that plastics are virtually
impossible to recycle, especially if they are dirty and mixed. Plastics are made from
fossil crude oil after refining the oil to specific monomers which are used to
synthesize the plastic polymers. Chemical recycling of waste plastics is a new way
of tackling plastic waste, where the idea is to break down the plastic polymers
down to their original monomers. If this is successful no new monomers from fossil
crude have to be refined and the oil can stay underground. The problem is that the
chemical recycling method is not that easy as plastics are by nature quite resistant
to chemicals which also leads to their persistence in the environment. Hence in the
current project we will employ a technology called hydrothermal liquefaction that
uses high pressure and temperature to break down polymers. A specific type of
polymer known as polyolefins are difficult to break down with just temperatures,
hence we will design new catalysts which can achieve that. Ultimately, we aim to
develop a process that can convert unsorted and dirty plastics even mixed with
other wastes to an oil which will replace the chemicals from fossil crude.



The main project website is deisgned by and hosted by Design School Kolding at: https://www.designskolenkolding.dk/en/projects/resuit

ReSuit (Recycling Technologies and Sustainable Textile Product Design) gathers a number of leading players to achieve a more sustainable textile industry and recycle all textile waste in Denmark.

Every year, 100 billion textile units are produced worldwide. Many of them have a short life. Materials worth 400 billion euros are lost as we lack infrastructure and solid recycling technologies on a very large scale.

In this project, we are looking to get all textile waste in Denmark into a loop where it can become new textiles or raw materials for other products. 

The project group will address the textile problem from two angles: How can the textile industry get better at designing sustainably? And which technologies can ensure circularity for consumer textile waste? 

In short: The purpose of ReSuit is to achieve a more sustainable textile industry and recycle all textile waste in Denmark


Chemical reuse of sorted clothes

When it comes to textile waste, the project focuses on the 85,000 tonnes of clothes and textiles that enter the Danish market every year. In the end, more than half of these materials are incinerated as waste.

From 2022, Denmark will start sorting clothes separately - and from 2025 the rest of the European Union will follow.

- Polyester accounts for half of all clothes fibres in the world. Therefore, we will further develop technology based on chemical purification to recycle the polyester materials so that they can return to the textile industry, says Anders Lindhardt from the Danish Technological Institute.

The remainder of the textile products must be degraded using so-called HTL technology (hydrothermal liquefaction). The process makes it possible – under the influence of water, heat and pressure – to convert the complex textile stream into oil products that can be used for the production of e.g. plastic, fuel or synthetic textile fibres. HTL is a well-known and robust technology, but it is ground-breaking to apply it to textiles. 

In the project, the HTL technology will be further developed and scaled up in collaboration with A/S Dansk Shell, which has successfully tested the possibility of refining bio-oil products and sees opportunities for recycling of other oil products. 

Project partners

ReSuit is a Grand Solutions project funded with DKK 13 mio. by Innovation Fund Denmark. The project partners are leading players within fashion and textiles, raw material production, and consumer behaviour, as well as recycling technology experts.

Danish Technological Institute (project manager)
Teknologisk Institut er et uafhængigt og almennyttigt forsknings- og udviklingsinstitut, der fremmer udnyttelsen af teknologiske fremskridt til gavn for erhvervsliv og samfund. Teknologisk Institut har over 1.000 specialister, der samarbejder på tværs inden for mange videnskabelige retninger. I dette projekt bidrager Teknologisk Institut med specialviden inden for blandt andet produktkemi og genanvendelsesteknologi.

Aarhus University 
Aarhus Universitet (AU) blev grundlagt i 1928 og er et landsdækkende universitet med 38.000 studerende, 1.800 ph.d.-studerende og 8.000 ansatte, hvoraf 4.500 er forskere. AU har et stærkt internationalt omdømme på tværs af hele forskningsspektret og er i den absolutte verdenselite inden for flere forskningsområder. Universitetet rangerer blandt verdens 10 bedste universiteter, der er grundlagt inden for de sidste 100 år og har en lang tradition for partnerskaber med topforskningsinstitutioner og universitetsnetværk i hele verden.

The Fraunhofer-Gesellschaft, headquartered in Germany, is the world’s leading applied research organization. With its focus on developing key technologies that are vital for the future and enabling the commercial exploitation of this work by business and industry, Fraunhofer plays a central role in the innovation process. As a pioneer and catalyst for groundbreaking developments and scientific excellence, Fraunhofer helps shape society now and in the future. Founded in 1949, the Fraunhofer-Gesellschaft currently operates 75 institutes and research institutions throughout Germany. The majority of the organization’s 29,000 employees are qualified scientists and engineers, who work with an annual research budget of 2.8 billion euros. Of this sum, 2.4 billion euros are generated through contract research.

BESTSELLER er en international, familieejet modevirksomhed bestående af mere end 20 individuelle modebrands. I de senere år har BESTSELLER accelereret sin indsats for en bæredygtig udvikling af modeverdenen, blandt andet med sidste års lancering af den ambitiøse innovationsplatform ’Fashion FWD Lab’, hvor målet er at skabe fremtidens bæredygtige løsninger i samarbejde med verdens førende innovatorer. 

Elis Danmark A/S (tidligere Berendsen Textil Service A/S) tilbyder bæredygtige tekstil- og hygiejneløsninger og svanemærket vaskeriservice, hvor forbruget af vand, energi og vaskemidler ligger under Svanemærkets krav. Elis var én af de 10 første virksomheder i Danmark, der blev CSR-certificeret, og i 2019 blev Elis verdensmålcertificeret af Bureau Veritas som den første virksomhed i verden. Elis er tildelt en Kronesmiley af Arbejdstilsynet for at gøre en ekstraordinær indsats for at sikre en høj arbejdsmiljøstandard og 85 % af Elis Danmarks tekstiler har mindst ét af mærkerne: Svanemærket, EU-blomsten og OEKO-TEX. Elis koncernen er en international multiservice-leverandør, der tilbyder løsninger indenfor tekstil-, hygiejne- og facility services.

Design School Kolding
Designskolen Kolding er en selvejende videregående uddannelsesinstitution under Uddannelses- og Forskningsministeriet. Skolen dedikerer en betydelig del af sit uddannelses- og forskningsfokus til bæredygtighed med vægt på innovativ praksis og tæt samarbejde med virksomheder, offentlige institutioner og det øvrige samfund. Designskolen bidrager i dette projekt med designmetoder og viden om bl.a. materialer, produktion og brugere.

Shell Raffinaderiet i Fredericia producerer 35 procent af det danske forbrug af brændstof. Raffinaderiet leverer overskudsvarme til fjernvarme svarende til mere end 23.000 almindelige husstandes årlige forbrug af fjernvarme, hvilket gør raffinaderiet til Danmarks største leverandør af overskudsvarme. Desuden er raffinaderiet verdens tredje mest energieffektive af sin slags. Raffinaderiet har med succes testet muligheden for at kunne raffinere bilo-olieprodukter i det eksisterende anlæg og deltager i flere projekter omkring grønnere brændstoffer.

Naboskab er et grønt konsulenthus, der er specialiseret i at forstå og ændre adfærd. Naboskab bruger antropologiske metoder til at få indsigt i menneskers hverdag og undersøge, hvad der motiverer mennesker til mere bæredygtig adfærd og forbrug. I dette projekt bidrager Naboskab med viden og undersøgelser om mennesker og adfærd samt erfaring med at lave adfærdsstudier og designe tiltag, som skaber reelle bæredygtige løsninger.

The HyFlexFuel project is dedicated to the development of an entire process chain to produce sustainable liquid fuels based on hydrothermal liquefaction of a broad range of biomass feedstocks.

The Project website can be found at https://www.hyflexfuel.eu . The project ended in September 2021 but the outcomes and achievements from the proejct can be found at the project website and on CORDIS https://cordis.europa.eu/project/id/764734/results


The European Union has set out ambitious targets for renewable fuels and stipulated that they should cover 10% of the final energy consumption in transport in 2020 (Directive 2009/28/EC). Decarbonisation of the transport sector is highlighted as a major challenge in the Energy Roadmap 2050.

Hydrothermal liquefaction (HTL) has recently received increasing attention as technology option to convert essentially any type of biomass feedstock into liquid fuels without the requirement of prior energy-intensive drying. HTL holds the potential of truly sustainable and cost-efficient production of drop-in capable biofuels at large scale.


The central objective of HyFlexFuel is to advance the technical maturity of the hydrothermal liquefaction technology to provide truly sustainable fuels that are compatible with existing infrastructure (drop-in capable) and that can be produced at competitive costs.

The specific objectives are:

  • Demonstrating HTL conversion compatibility with diverse advanced biomass feedstocks
  • Maturing key subsystems of HTL-based fuel production from TRL 2-4 to TRL 5, including the upgrading of the intermediate product biocrude to final fuel products
  • Demonstrating drop-in capability of HyFlexFuel fuel products
  • Increasing process efficiency through enhanced heat integration and product recovery procedures
  • In-depth understanding of the relation between feedstock and process conditions vs. product yield and quality
  • Efficient valorization of residual process streams, particularly of the aqueous phase from HTL conversion
  • Quantification of technical, socio-economic and environmental performance potentials, risks and benefits
  • Identification of technology gaps and development of an R&D roadmap towards full-scale implementation

The strength of HyFlexFuel lies in the fact that its scope goes beyond the process step of hydrothermal liquefaction and also includes the upgrading of biocrude to fuel products and the energetic and material utilization of the aqueous phase as main residual process stream. Moreover, supply and utilization of a broad range of feedstock is studied in detail. HyFlexFuel will examine the key subsystems in continuous operation under relevant conditions. In combination with an in-depth assessment of environmental, economic and social potentials, the project will thereby generate technology solutions and insights as valuable basis for further developments of HTL-based fuel production towards industrial application.


Membrane Engineering

  • 2018 Synergistic Grant, JC (PI) and Nina Lock: MOF-based 3D electrodes for continuous CO2 conversion
  • 2019 WATEC grant, JC (PI), Konstantinos Anastasakis, Nina Lock, and Leendert Vergeynst: Integrated Sea Water Desalination System for Bio-Fouling Mitigation (i-Des)

Plastics and Polymer Engineering

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  1. Quantitative elastography of the uterine cervix and prediction of labor induction

    Puk Sandager , Niels Uldbjerg , Christine Rohr Thomsen (Antonsen) & Mogens Hinge

    The aim of this study is to:
    • Assess the intra- and interobserver reliability of elastography of the cervix with a cap of a water-based material as reference material
    • Assess the correlation between compressibility of the uterine cervical tissue evaluated by quantitative elastography and the success of induction of labor

    Evaluation of the cervical tissue by quantitative elastography in post-term pregnant women can predict the success of induction of labor.


  2. Gel for ultrasound imaging

    Mogens Hinge


  3. Obstetrics: New principles for quantitative elastography of the human uterine cervix

    Christine Rohr Thomsen (Antonsen) , Isil Pinar Bor , Niels Uldbjerg , Puk Sandager & Mogens Hinge

    The overall aim of the study is to develop in vitro and to assess in women a clinical useful method for assessment of the biomechanical properties of the uterine cervix. The technique is based on elastography combined with a reference cap, already developed in collaboration with Mogens Hinge and his group at the Department of Engineering, Aarhus University. Beskrivelse


  4. Molecular Adhesive for Strong and Durable Bonding of Rubber to Metal

    Michal Kazimierz Budzik , Simon Heide-Jørgensen & Mogens Hinge

    Adhesives are used throughout industry, but many contain toxics and others are not reliable or durable. But what if you could merge two materials together using clean molecular bonding? That is exactly what scientists are working on right now.Beskrivelse


Power to Chemicals

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A new twist on ammonia production: more efficient electrochemical synthesis using "designer" hydrogen binding mediators (2021 - 2025)

Danmarks Frie Forskningsfund

The project aims to develop a new groundbreaking concept of energy-efficient electrochemical ammonia synthesis.

Organic Battery Systems (2017-2020)

Innovation Fund Denmark

The project aims to build a prototype flow battery with a power rating in the range 5-25 kW. An ambitious cost target of < $100/kWh, including materials, stack and balance-of-plant has been set.

In this project we worked on the development and screening of organic redox species, we currently investigate the lifetime of the battery and the effect of the operating conditions and the electrolyte on battery stability. Finally we are scaling up a flow battery which will be finished ultimo 2020.

All organic redox flow batteries (2015 - 2017)

Marie Sklodowska-Curie Individual Fellowship

In this project we worked on screening and the development of organic redox species for redox flow batteries.

Sustainable Process Systems Engineering

'ELHYOs: Electrochemical Hydrogenation of biO-crude'. Granted by: Villum experiment, The Vellux Foundations, DK, 2020-2023, 1,776,430 DKK (238,597 €). Co-PI. Collaborators: Jacopo Catalano (PI).


‘ACLEAN - Activated Carbon from hydrothermal Liquefaction of sludge: recovering nutriEnts and mitigating micropollutANts'. PI. Granted by: WATEC (Aarhus University Centre for Water Technology), DK, 2020, 200,000 DKK (26,856 €). Collaborators: Pedro Carvalho (Co-PI).


'From wastewater to green liquid fuels: A techno-economic analysis for integrating hydrothermal liquefaction in wastewater treatment facilities'. PI. Granted by: Innoexplorer, Innovation Fund DK, 2019-2020, 812,527 DKK (108,870 €). Collaborators: Patrick Biller.


'i-Des: Integrated Sea Water Desalination System for Bio-Fouling Mitigation' project. Co-PI. Granted by: WATEC (Aarhus University Centre for Water Technology), DK, 2019, 130,000 DKK (17,546 €). Collaborators: Jacopo Catalano (PI), Nina Lock, and Leendert Vergeynst.


Hyflexfuel - Hydrothermal Liquefaction: Enhanced performance and feedstock flexibility for efficient biofuel production’. Funder: Horizon 2020, EU, 2017-2021. Research and participation in project management for hydrothermal liquefaction processing tasks. Collaborators: Patrick Biller et al.